What is std::function in C++, and why do we need them?

Create: January 18, 2021

Yesterday, someone in the #include<C++> discord server asked the following question:

how std::function works with lambda captures and functions handling I still don't understand

Below was my answer to the question, with some typo-fixes and expansions:

Invocables can have different types even if their parameter and return types are the same

Lambda expressions can be considered syntactic sugar over classes with operator() defined. For example:

int x = 3;
auto lambda = [x](int y) { return x + y; };

is roughly equivalent to

struct __Lambda {
  int x;

  int operator()(int y) const {
    return x + y;

int x = 3;
auto lambda = __Lambda { .x = x };

One consequence is that every lambda expression has a distinct type. For example, in the below snippet,

int x, z;

auto lambda = [x](int y) { return x + y; };
auto lambda2 = [x, z](int y) { return x + y + z; };

lambda and lambda2 have different types, even though they both take an int and return an int.

C++ also have functions, which are distinct from classes with operator().

The motivation for std::function

Then, how do we store such an invocable object that takes an int and returns an int disregard of its types?

We need std::function to accomplish such a task. For example:

struct S {
  std::function<int(int)> func;

A canonical use case for storing an invocable in this fashion is a task system, where you probably want to store callbacks in a container to execute later:

struct TaskQueue {
  std::queue<std::function<void()>> queue;
  std::mutex mutex;
  std::condition_variable ready;

  // member functions

Type Erasure

To make func accepts both lambda and lambda2, std::function needs to have constructors that take any function object or plain function that satisfies its signature. And we need to perform type erasure to achieve this behavior.

There are various techniques to implement type erasure in C++, and it is not a topic I can fit into this post. But the high-level idea is that std::function needs some function pointer that can invoke the lambda and some storage space to store lambda captures. The data need to be allocated on the heap since lambda expressions (or invocable classes) can have arbitrary sized capture. However, all major std::function implementations also perform small buffer optimization if your lambda is small enough to fit into a predefined capacity. In that case, all data can be allocated directly inside the std::function object itself, and no additional heap allocation is performed.