Intuition Behind X86 "lea" Instruction

Create: June 11, 2019 | 339 words | 2 min read

During the last meeting of the North Denver C++ Meetup, some people mentioned that lea is more confusing than other instructions. lea is an acronym for "load effective address." The usual explanation is "to put a memory address from the source into the destination." The syntax of lea in the Intel Syntax is the following:

lea destination, source

For example, if you have an array points of struct Point:

struct Point
{
    int x;
    int y;
    int z;
};

The compiler may generate the following line for int x = points[i].y;

mov  eax, [rbx+rcx*4 + 4]

In this case, the register rbx points to the array points, rcx is the index variable i, and eax is the register that holds x. Similarly, for int* x = &points[i].y;, compilers can generate

lea  eax, [rbx+rcx*4 + 4]

However, besides using it for address operations, compilers seem to prefer using lea to other arithmetic instructions as well for efficiency reason. For example, int y = x * 5; may generate

lea  eax, [rdi + 4*rdi]

instead of the more intuitive version of

imul  eax, [rdi], 5

lea is, in my point of view, a process of pointer arithmetic sandwiched with casts. For the previous example, the equivalent c code is

int y = (int)(&((int*)x)[x]);

The above code first treats x as an int pointer ((int*)x), and then get address the x-th element of that pointer. That part is essentially the address [rdi + 4*rdi]. Next, it assigns the lower 32 bits of the address as an integer value to the destination.

I hope this example gives you some intuitive understanding about lea. Of course, no sane C programmer will write such kind of code by hand. The above code is not even conforming C++ for a good reason (C++ disallow casting from pointer to smaller type int). However, from a machine's perspective, such kind of "reinterpret_cast" is essentially a no-op, and machine languages leverage that all the time.